Collaborative Learning: students learning effectively in groups encourage each other to ask questions, explain and justify their opinions, articulate their reasoning, and elaborate and reflect upon their knowledge.


Online learning: Online courses and MOOCs and content such as learning objects.


Complex Thinking: includes goal-directed, multi-step strategic processes,
such as designing, decision making and problem solving and this is an essential core of higher order thinking.


Learning Analytics: a field of research that involves the gathering, analyzing and reporting of data related to learners and their environments with the purpose of optimizing the learning experience.


Game-Based Learning: uses competitive exercises, either pitting the students against each other or getting them to challenge themselves in order to motivate them to learn better.


Embedded Assessment: designed to provide teachers and students with continuous information about students’ learning so that ongoing instruction could be adjusted as need to help all students acquire essential scientific concepts and processes.


Real World Problem Solving: real world problems “tend to be ill-defined, lacking required
information, and not having a well-defined ending state and therefore with neither a known
correct nor best solution.


Practice-Based Learning: includes self-assessment, analysis of what is observed, performance improvement based on that analysis, and self-assessment again


Performance Assessments: include contrasts between performances and products, between assessment of performance per se and performance assessment of competence or other constructs, between structured and unstructured problems and response modes, and between breadth and depth of domain coverage.


Educational Simulations: include goals, capabilities, resources, means, interactions, strategy, engagement, decision-making, and problem-solving requirements.


STEM Learning: learning in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math.


Discourse Analytics: aims to capture meaningful data on student interactions which (unlike ‘social network analytics’) aims to explore the properties of the language used, as opposed to just the network of interactions, or forum-post counts, etc.


Pedagogical Authoring: The design of environments with which or in which teaching will take place. These environments range from traditional classroom curricula to immersive digital games and simulations.


Neuroanalytics and Educational Neuroscience examines the neural underpinnings of cognitive processes that are relevant for education, and the role of educational experiences and enculturation as primary drivers of brain plasticity to create the neural circuits that underlie human specific abilities.


Professional Development: the term professional development may be used in reference to a wide variety of specialized training, formal education, or advanced professional learning intended to help administrators, teachers, and other educators improve their professional knowledge, competence, skill, and effectiveness.


Design Thinking: methodology used by designers to solve complex problems and find desirable solutions; it is solution focused and action oriented.


Big Data and Education: data sets that are so large or complex that traditional processing applications are inadequate or a group of statistical techniques that uncover patterns.


Educational Research Methods: methods in which different aspects of education are evaluated.


Reliability and Validity in Research Studies: reliability is the repeatability of measures while validity is the degree the degree to which the study’s conclusions are generalizable.


Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: Doing work with the help of computers together; also an international conference hosted by ISLS.


Place-Based Learning: promotes learning that is rooted in what is local and seeks to help communities through employing students and school staff in solving community problems.


Scientific Modeling: scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate by referencing it to existing and usually commonly accepted knowledge


Civic Engagement: individual and collective actions designed to identify and address issues of public concern.


Design-Based Research: a systematic but flexible methodology aimed to improve educational practices through iterative analysis, design, development, and implementation, based on collaboration among researchers and practitioners in real-world settings, and leading to contextually-sensitive design principles and theories.


Representations: hypothetical ‘internal’ cognitive symbols that represent external reality.


Embodied Cognition: the belief that many features of human cognition are shaped by aspects of the body beyond the brain.


Regulated Learning: the  process of taking control of and evaluating one’s own learning and behavior and environment.


Personalized Learning: pedagogy, curriculum, and environments to meet the individual student’s needs, preferences, and interests.


Social and Personal Skills: skills be under the cognitive control of the individual, for example, Learning how to recognize and manage stress, in yourself and others.


Discourse Processes: cognitive processes that investigate the structures, patterns, mental representations, and processes that underlie the written and spoken unit of connected speech or writing.


Mathematical Cognition: The study of the cognitive, developmental, and neural bases of mathematics.


Engineering Education: the application of learning sciences theories and methods to the teaching of engineering practices.


Integrated STEM Education: the combination of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics into educational experiences through connections to real world problems.


Representational Fluency: the ability to understand the equivalence of different modes of representation, e.g., graphical representations vs. equation-based representations.


Teacher Knowledge and Beliefs: the beliefs and knowledge held by teachers about general pedagogical principles and the subject matter to be taught.


Educational Data Mining: the application of data mining methods such as predictive modeling and structure discovery algorithms to large-scale data sets that come from educational settings.


Human-Computer Interaction: the study of how humans interact with computers and to what extent computers are developed for successful interaction with humans.


Adaptive Educational Technologies: educational technologies that are customized to individual learners. These technologies account for current learner performance and adapt to support learning.


Teachers Use of Games and Simulations: the study of how teachers use and interact with games and simulations in a classroom setting.


Interest Development: how interest in a topic or activity is acquired and how it changes over time.


Statistical Learning: the ability to recognize statistical regularities from environment around you and learn from them.


Social Cognition: the cognition of social objects including people, social situations, and the interpersonal behaviors present in social situations.


Informal Learning: learning that takes place outside of traditional classroom settings.


Scaffolding/Distributed Scaffolding: the technique of offering temporary support for learners on tasks they would not be able to accomplish or understand alone. Scaffolding is distributed when more than one person or tool is being used to scaffold learning.


Learning from Physical and Virtual Models


Imagination: investigating the role of imagination in reasoning and problem solving.